Copyediting and Proofreading
"Copyediting" is a term with numerous interpretations. It is often used interchangeably—and incorrectly—with "proofreading." The use of a service agreement, required of every consultant in this network, will clearly define the services offered and the limitations of that consultant (e.g., a developmental editor may not offer "proofreading" services) and will contain a nondisclosure clause.
Definition of COPY EDITOR*:
- an editor who prepares copy for the typesetter
- one who edits and headlines newspaper copy
— copy·ed·it transitive verb
Copyediting may include checking for:
- general grammar, word choice, sentence structure, and clarity
- tenses, wordiness, repetition, parallel structure
- punctuation, capitalization, spelling, headings and lists
- appropriate voice and tone for intended audience
- transitions between sections, chapters, parts
- adherence to editorial guidelines
- accuracy of cross-references
- subject-verb agreement
- pronoun-antecedent agreement
- appropriate use of modifiers
- slang/vernacular and sexist language
- proper and/or consistent font/typeface
- proper use of trademarks
- accuracy of glossary, cross-references, footnotes, and index
- proper use of abbreviations and acronyms
- proper use of numbers and symbols
- quotation mark errors, missing parentheses, wrong number of ellipsis points
- figures and tables mentioned in previous text
- running heads, footers, and page numbers
- errors in continuity
- formatting per style guide and/or template
- line, page, and section breaks
- proper appearance of graphics and illustrations
- accuracy of table of contents and formatting of levels
- appendixes in correct order
- bibliography/references/glossary terms are complete and properly alphabetized
- final pagination
Copyediting usually does not include:
- rewriting (which may be part of a developmental edit)
- checking for plagiarism
- ensuring the accuracy of text, graphics, tables, illustrations, and (sometimes) the accuracy of references/bibliography/index/glossary
- final proofreading before submission or publication.
It is common for writers/subsequent reviewers to introduce errors when adding or rewriting material. A final proofread checks for typographical and formatting errors.
The service agreement you have with your copy editor should specify the scope and limitations of services. Proofreading (e.g., for typos) may or may not be included in the scope of services.
: to read and mark corrections in (as a proof)
Examples of PROOFREAD
- He proofread the essay carefully.
Definition of PROOFREADER
: a person who proofreads
Copy Editors and Proofreaders
For nearly 30 years, LINDA BENNETT has helped hundreds of students and professionals ensure that their submissions to academic institutions and professional journals are cogent, understandable, and well written.
Linda is an APA expert and is highly skilled in adapting edits to adhere to institution-specific style guides for colleges, universities, government offices, and research organizations. She is meticulous, detail-oriented, and focused on helping clients meet and exceed their goals. She has provided APA editing, layout formatting, citation and reference formatting, and copyediting services to clients around the world:
- More than 50 dissertations for Ph.D. candidates
- More than 200 academic submissions and master’s theses for grad students
- More than 300 peer-reviewed articles for academic and scientific journals
- Research reports and surveys for government organizations
An efficient, versatile, award-winning editor, Linda is an expert in APA and Chicago Manual styles, is experienced with MLA and AP styles, and is a member of the Editorial Freelancers Association.
Michael is not accepting submissions until January 2018.
Substantive editing, copyediting, rewriting
Fiction and nonfiction: literary, how-to, psychology, self-help, crime fiction, adult, young adult, drama, fantasy, sci-fi, true crime, international relations, current affairs, nature and science, military history, forensic science, travel
MICHAEL CARR has edited or copyedited 300+ fiction and nonfiction titles for major publishers and authors. Notable nonfiction authors include Bernard Goldberg (NY Times best-seller Arrogance), CNN anchor Lou Dobbs (Exporting America), Rev. Al Sharpton (Al on America), and CNN Crossfire host Tucker Carlson (Politicians, Partisans, and Parasites). Michael edits most fiction genres but specializes in literary and historical, crime/mystery, drama, fantasy, and science fiction.
Notable fiction authors include Brad Meltzer (#3 NY Times best-seller The Zero Game), NY Times Notable Book of the Year author Archer Mayor (The Surrogate Thief, Gatekeeper, The Second Mouse), crime grandmaster Donald Westlake (the Dortmunder series), and the fantasy master Michael Moorcock (The White Wolf's Son).
Michael has also edited eight published volumes on world affairs and some twenty self-help books (medical, psychological, personal growth, and business) and has translated a dozen novels and other literary works from Spanish to English.
MARLO GARNER has been editing books and teaching writing since the late 1990s. She teaches Writing for Children's Books (picture books), Writing Chapter Books for Children, and various other writing and revision workshops. She also works in an editorial advisory capacity, and a copyeditor and illustrator for a number of independent or educational publishers. Her Ginny Giles chapter book series—which contains numerous poems and rhyming verse—was released in 2010, and she is the author and/or illustrator of a number of other published books for children, including a picture book for Internet security giant AVG. She is a member of the Society of Children's Book Writers and Illustrators (SCBWI) and the Editorial Freelancers Association (EFA), and received first place in the 'published' division of the New England SCBWI 2013 illustration awards. Marlo is currently writing and illustrating a middle grade dystopian graphic novel as well as a picture book, and she blogs about writing, editing, and grammar.
“Marlo was immensely helpful and pleasant to work with. I knew I had a penned a good story, but her suggested improvements will really help my middle-grade dragon tale connect emotionally with young readers. Thanks to her encouragement and advice, I will be submitting my manuscript and illustrations to agents and editors with far greater confidence." J. C. Stevens
- Copyediting & proofreading
- Developmental/substantive editing
- Cover letters, query letters (free with contracted service)
- Correct formatting & understanding the submission process
- Critiques, writing instruction & mentorship
- Children's books: picture books, poetry, magazine submissions, chapter books, young adult, children's non-fiction.
- Literary fiction, crime, fantasy
- Illustration, illustration critiques and advice for aspiring illustrators.
Writing Coach, Mentor, Collaborator, and Ghostwriter Editing Services
Contemporary, Mainstream, Creative Nonfiction, Detective, Erotica, Gay/Lesbian, Literary Fiction, Memoir/Autobiography, Mystery, Psychological Thriller, Suspense, Women’s Fiction, Young Adult
TED GASNER edited hundreds of award-winning fiction and nonfiction titles during his six years as a supervising editor for Scholastic Inc. Ted developed book series for print, eReaders, and websites, then assigned topics to authors, helped them with their outlines and first drafts, and then took over from there to copyedit the final product.
As a freelance editor, Ted has edited novels, memoirs, marketing and advertising materials, textbooks, research papers, websites and whatever else has comes his way. He has a strong background in fiction, history, the sciences, and sports.
Ted specializes in developmental editing, copyediting, line editing, and proofreading. A strong communicator, he works as a team with authors to help them bring out the best of the manuscripts.
"Ted has an amazing ability to boil it down to the best moments in the least amount of words! I really like all the sophistication he brings to the writing. Casual tone but with varying sentence structures that keep it interesting." —Eileen Wacker, author of The Mom’s Code and Once Kids’ Fujimini Adventure Series
"I glanced over the edits – I don’t like them – I LOVE THEM!!! You’re a genius! You really made my girls pop! I had to laugh at a couple of your comments. Great catch about Facebook age appropriateness. So, THANK YOU, THANK YOU, THANK YOU for all that work! It’s so much red, I feel like a failing kid in seventh grade." -Yvette.
"I’ve had the privilege of working with Ted, and he is a consummate professional. A talented editor with a keen eye for detail, Ted always offers fresh and creative ideas to help strengthen my prose without compromising my voice. If you are looking for a caring, prompt, thorough editor, he is definitely the person to contact. —Lisa Fox, author of Knightly Desire
"I chose Ted Gasner over cheaper proposals because of his sample edit. He was worth every penny as he put MORE into the project than he needed to. Nice quality work and easy to work with." -Don McGann
CAROLINE HILEY specializes in editing novels. She works with independent authors as well as traditional publishers, such as Penguin, HarperCollins, and Little, Brown. She also handles short-form fiction (novellas and short stories) and memoir.
From decades of experience as an editor and compositor, along with her personal experience as a published novelist, Caroline understands the entire writing process from first draft to production. She helps novice and seasoned authors prepare their novels for the real world, including help not only with storycraft but also collateral documents, such as queries and synopses, and grooming files for submission to publishers and self-publishing.
- Substantive editing
- Manuscript evaluation
Her focus in all editing is consistency, accuracy, and clarity, so that authors can successfully connect with their readers.
JOHN DAVID KUDRICK (BA in Theology / MA in Journalism—Professional Writing: Fiction).
You're sitting at your computer, smiling, feeling an incredible sense of satisfaction in your heart. After more hours than you can count, you've finally finished your novel – a story from deep within your soul that you want to share with the world.
But then the questions start hitting your mind: Is it the very best that it can be? Will anyone even want to read it? What should I do with it now?
With nearly twenty years of experience as an editor, John David understands the gamut of feelings that comes with getting your novel from your hard drive and into print. That's why he'd love to partner with you in getting your novel to the next level …
- Manuscript Critique – With a detailed evaluation document and annotated comments/suggestions throughout your manuscript, find out how you can make your good book even better.
- Content Editing – Guidance and hands-on editorial help in reorganizing and revising your story to make it even more powerful and engaging. Includes two rounds of editorial review.
- Copyediting – Line-by-line editing to take care of grammar, word usage, tone, format, and more. Includes two rounds of editorial review.
- Proofreading – A final polish to clean up typos, inconsistencies, misspellings, and punctuation problems. Includes two rounds of editorial review.
- Ghostwriting – Crafting of a book-length manuscript using existing material from author. Also includes a follow-up copyedit. (NOTE: Ghostwriting available for Christian living/spirituality book projects only.)
JO-ANN LANGTREE writes and edits books, stories, and articles in the following fields: business, medical, insurance, health, holistic health, spirituality, religion, psychic phenomena, young-adult fiction, children's books, mystical experience, self-help, New Age, nutrition, diet, exercise, saints & masters, gurus, theosophy, Christianity, homeopathy, vitamins & minerals, herbs, and food supplements. She was a writer and editor for Aetna Life & Casualty. As editor of Life NEWS, she had sole responsibility for finding, developing, writing, editing, and proofing all articles. Topics included new products, sales campaigns, insurance-agent interviews, accolades, seminars, Company acquisitions and policies. Jo-Ann also edits personal and business sites.
Editing (copyediting and developmental)
Spirituality, metaphysics, religion, theosophy, psychology, holistic health, food supplements, homeopathy, nutrition, veganism, psychic phenomena, lucid dreaming, mystical experience, self-help, saints, masters, and gurus
HOLLY MONTY, MA MAC ELS
APA format, Chicago Manual of Style
Since operating as a freelance editor and writer, Ms. Monty, a Microsoft Word and LaTeX expert, has worked on books and articles published by many of the world’s leading publishers, including Cambridge University Press, Oxford University Press, MIT Press, W. W. Norton, Sage, John Wiley, Springer, Lawrence Erlbaum, Pearson-Prentice Hall, Praeger, Greenwood, Blackwell, and other top names in academic and nonfiction publishing. To date, she has edited more than 2,000 published journal articles, more than 150 nonfiction books, and a wealth of dissertations and theses. Ms. Monty is proud to have worked with a diversity of students and academics from a broad range of our nation's universities. Given her wealth of experience, she is adept at working within the precise terms of your university's thesis/dissertation guidelines or with the publication guidelines of any peer-reviewed journal.
"Holly was FANTASTIC. She was SO thorough and submitted everything back to me earlier than I needed it! Even after she was done with the edit, I had some questions, and she was very speedy in her responses. I appreciate that she took time to answer my questions. She really went above and beyond! My paper not only needed to follow APA guidelines, but my university had guidelines as well. She did both perfectly." - Nicole Foster, Trinity International University.
FICTION AND NONFICTION BOOKS, MEMOIRS, THESES, DISSERTATIONS (APA Format)
“James Powell examines the symbols of language the way a biologist examines cells.” New York Times Review of Books
“James Powell assures us that the universe is a silent partner in a dialogue that goes on all the time.” New York Times Review of Books
JAMES N. POWELL is "a good literary surgeon," as one of his accomplished clients noted. As an editor of fiction and non-fiction, he views manuscripts with comprehensive vision and an eye for detail. He will read your fiction with an eye to making it believable and your non-fiction with a knack for making it both convincing and engaging.
His books and short stories have been translated into many languages and are known throughout the world. His list of publications includes The Tao of Symbols (Morrow 1982), Energy and Eros (Morrow 1985), The Prentice Hall Global Employment Guide (Prentice Hall 1983), Mandalas: The Dynamics of Vedic Symbolism (Sterling 1980), Derrida for Beginners (Writers and Readers 1996), Postmodernism for Beginners (Writers and Readers 1998), Eastern Philosophy for Beginners (2000), Deconstruction for Beginners (2005), and Slow Love: A Polynesian Pillow Book (2008).
His short story "The Silence of the Hummingbird" was published in Spanish in Revista Katharsis, in Malaga, Spain, and his journalism has appeared in Spirituality & Health, Tahiti Beach Press, the Santa Barbara Independent, and Montecito Journal.
MARIE VALENTINE's editorial work ranges from conceptual and developmental brainstorming to copy editing and proofreading, as well as the nitty-gritty of print and Web production. She has worked in acquisitions and production for the renowned new age book publisher Llewellyn Worldwide. She has also served as a news editor and writer, business technology editor, poet and small press publisher of experimental works by contemporary writers. Marie will use her knowledge in literature and nonfiction to clarify your thoughts with minimal alteration, but she is also open to experiments and will adapt easily and quickly to your perceived vision and goals. A flexible editor and proofreader with a light touch, Marie will help your prose shine while keeping your personal style intact.
- 10+ years proofreading experience (print, web, digital, books, magazines, news weeklies, chapbooks and more)
- 6 years business and technology editing experience
- 5 years book manuscript editing experience, both fiction and nonfiction
- 4 years publisher acquisitions experience - Ruminator (small press), university press (U of MN), commercial press (Llewellyn). She knows what publishers look for in a book.
- 9 years academic editing and formatting
- Content organization
- Structural and substantive editing
- Formatting and style editing (MLA, Chicago, APA, AP, project-specific)
- Copy editing
* from Webster's